The earliest sign of cellular aging

What is unarguably the earliest sign of cellular aging is the accumulation of cellular debris called lipofuscin (lie-po-fuss-in).  Lipofuscin accumulation usually begins as full physical growth is achieved, around age 18.  This is precisely when metals such as iron and copper begin to accumulate in the body, first in males then later in females as iron-controlling menstruation ceases.  The speed at which lipofuscin accumulates is dependent upon the amount of metals (mostly iron and copper) incorporated into lipofuscin.  [Free Radical Biology Medicine April 15, 2010]

Can lipofuscin deposition be reversed?  It was in pond snails.  Vitamin E reduced lipofuscin content by 50% in old animals.  A diet devoid of vitamin E increased lipofuscin by over 100%. [Mechanisms Ageing Development March 1985]

There is evidence that vitamin E diminishes the amount of lipofuscin in the nervous system. [Virchows Archives A Pathology Anatomy Histopathology 1986]

Beta cyclodextrin, a natural sugar-like molecule related to the bacterial digestion of cellulose, has been demonstrated to bind to retinal lipofuscin and prevent its oxidation.  This was demonstrated in a lab dish.  [Proceedings National Academy Sciences 2014]

Whether orally consumed beta cyclodextrin is absorbed and is transported to the retina needs to be confirmed.  In lab animals very little beta cyclodextrin is absorbed.  [Arzneimittel-Forschung 1980]  In humans, only a small portion of beta cyclodextrin is absorbed intact, however, beta cyclodextrin may exert an indirect biological effect via the gut bacteria. [Inchem]

Beta cyclodextrin appears to stabilize and enhance the biological effect of vitamin D. [Pharmazie 1980]  Beta cyclodextrin when delivered with a molecule found in grapefruit was found to enhance its biological effect in the eyes. [Biomedical Research International 2014]  Beta cyclodextrin given orally was found to increase the blood plasma concentration of resveratrol by 15-fold. [Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry July 2015]

Used-up vitamin A, which serves to produce the visual chemical rhodopsin, is shed from photoreceptors at the back of the eyes every morning.  The amount of vitamin A in the diet determines the amount of oxidized (hardened) lipofuscin in the retina. [Retina 1982] Under experimental conditions beta cyclodextrin has been shown to remove vitamin A from the retina of animals.  [Journal Ocular Pharmacology Therapy June 2010]

The inclusion of beta cyclodextrin in the diet may be an anti-aging strategy.  Beta cyclodextein is often used as a solvent to increased the bioavailability and stability of drugs and nutrients. [Critical Review Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems 1987]  Beta cyclodextrin is considered safe up to 700 milligrams in humans. [European Medicines Agency 2014]

Inclusion of resveratrol into the diet of lab animals has been shown to ameliorates the breakdown of the blood/brain barrier and reduce accumulation of lipofuscin.  It is presumed it would do the same to preserve the blood/retinal barrier and lipofuscin deposits in the retina.  [Human Molecular Genetics May 15, 2012]

The inclusion of beta cyclodextrin in an anti-aging dietary supplement is soon anticipated.

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